Zen - Wikipedia Zen From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). Bodhidharma and Dazu Huike, the first two Zen patriarchs Zen Chinese name Traditional Chinese 禪 Simplified Chinese 禅 Transcriptions Standard Mandarin Hanyu Pinyin Chán Wade–Giles Ch'an2 IPA [ʈʂʰǎn] Yue: Cantonese Jyutping Sim4 Middle Chinese Middle Chinese dʑjen Vietnamese name Vietnamese Thiền Korean name Hangul 선 Hanja 禪 Transcriptions Revised Romanization Seon Japanese name Kanji 禅 Transcriptions Romanization Zen Sanskrit name Sanskrit dhyāna Part of a series on Zen Buddhism Main articles Zen Chan Buddhism Vietnamese Thiền Korean Seon Japanese Zen Zen in the United States Persons Chán in China Bodhidharma Huineng (Enō) Mazu Daoyi (Baso) Shitou Xiqian (Kisen) Dongshan Liangjie (Tozan) Xuefeng Yicun (Seppo) Linji Yixuan (Rinzai) Dahui Zonggao (Tahui) Zen in Japan Dōgen Hakuin Ekaku Seon in Korea Taego Bou Jinul Daewon Seongcheol Zen in the USA D. T. Suzuki Hakuun Yasutani Taizan Maezumi Shunryū Suzuki Seungsahn Category: Zen Buddhists Doctrines Zen and Sutras Doctrinal background of Zen Buddha-nature Yogacara Śūnyatā Bodhisattva Traditions Dharma transmission Zen lineage charts Zen ranks and hierarchy Zen organisation and institutions Zen Narratives Awakening Kenshō Satori Sudden Enlightenment Shikantaza Teachings Ten Ox-Herding Pictures Five ranks of Tozan Three mysterious Gates Four Ways of Knowing Practice Zazen / Shikantaza Kōan practice Schools East Mountain Teaching Hongzhou school Five Houses of Chán Rinzai school Sōtō school Sanbo Kyodan White Plum Asanga Related schools Huayan Tiantai Pure Land Buddhism v t e Part of a series on Mahāyāna Buddhism Transmission General India † Eastern Transmission Xinjiang (original) † Han Japan Korea Vietnam Indonesian Chinese Malaysia Singapore Northern Transmission China Tibet Neo-Xinjiang Gansu Uyghur Inner Mongolian Bhutan Mongolia Nepal Russia Western Transmission Western countries USA Reintroduction to India Teachings Bodhisattva Samādhi Prajñā Śūnyatā Trikāya Mahāyāna sūtras Prajñāpāramitā sūtras Lotus Sūtra Vimalakīrti Sutra Avataṃsaka Sūtra Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra Tathāgatagarbha sūtras Śūraṅgama Sūtra Mahāyāna schools Mādhyamaka Yogācāra Tiantai Huayan Zen Pure Land Esoteric Buddhism Nichiren Other traditions Hinayana Theravāda Vajrayāna Tibetan Newar Navayana Mahayana Buddhism portal v t e Part of a series on Buddhism History Timeline Gautama Buddha Councils Later Buddhists Dharma Concepts Four Noble Truths Five Aggregates Impermanence Suffering Non-self Dependent Origination Middle Way Emptiness Karma Rebirth Saṃsāra Cosmology Buddhist texts Buddhavacana Tripiṭaka Mahayana Sutras Pāli Canon Tibetan canon Chinese canon Practices Three Jewels Buddhist Paths to liberation Morality Perfections Meditation Philosophical reasoning Mindfulness Wisdom Compassion Aids to Enlightenment Monasticism Laity Nirvāṇa Four Stages Arhat Buddha Bodhisattva Traditions Theravāda Pāli Mahāyāna Hinayana Chinese Vajrayāna Tibetan Navayana Newar Buddhism by country India China Thailand Japan Myanmar Sri Lanka Laos Cambodia Korea Taiwan Tibet Bhutan Mongolia Russia Outline Buddhism portal v t e Zen (Chinese: 禪; pinyin: Chán) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism. Zen school was strongly influenced by Taoism and developed as a distinguished school of Chinese Buddhism. From China, Chan Buddhism spread south to Vietnam, northeast to Korea and east to Japan, where it became known as Japanese Zen.[1] The term Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 (Chan) which traces its roots to the Indian practice of Dhyana ("meditation").[note 1] Zen emphasizes rigorous self-control, meditation-practice, insight into Buddha-nature, and the personal expression of this insight in daily life, especially for the benefit of others.[3][4] As such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine[5][6] and favors direct understanding through zazen and interaction with an accomplished teacher.[7] The teachings of Zen include various sources of Mahayana thought, especially Yogachara, the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras and the Huayan school, with their emphasis on Buddha-nature, totality, and the Bodhisattva-ideal.[8][9] The Prajñāpāramitā literature[10] and, to a lesser extent, Madhyamaka have also been influential in the shaping of the "paradoxical language" of the Zen-tradition. Contents 1 Etymology 2 Zen practice 2.1 Observing the breath 2.2 Observing the mind 2.3 Intensive group meditation 2.4 Insight – Kōan practice 2.5 Zen chanting and liturgy 2.6 Lay services 3 Zen teachings 3.1 Rinzai 3.2 Soto 3.3 Sanbo Kyodan 4 Zen scripture 4.1 The role of scripture in Zen 4.2 Grounding Chán in scripture 4.3 Zen literature 5 Zen organization and institutions 6 Zen narratives 7 History of Zen 7.1 Chinese Chán 7.1.1 Periodisation 7.1.2 Origins and Taoist influences (c. 200–500) 7.1.3 Legendary or Proto-Chán – Six Patriarchs (c. 500–600) 7.1.4 Early Chán – Tang Dynasty (c. 600–900) 7.1.5 Classical or Middle Chán (c. 750–1000) An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) till end of Tang Dynasty (907) Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960/979) 7.1.6 Literary Chán – Song Dynasty (c. 960–1300) 7.1.7 Post-Classical Chán (c. 1300 – present) Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368) Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) Modern times 7.2 Spread of Chán 7.2.1 Thiền in Vietnam 7.2.2 Seon in Korea 7.2.3 Zen in Japan 7.2.4 Zen in the Western world 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 10.1 Published sources 10.2 Web sources 11 Further reading 12 External links Etymology[edit] The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 (dʑjen) (pinyin: Chán), which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna (ध्यान ),[2] which can be approximately translated as "absorption" or "meditative state".[11] Zen practice[edit] See also: Dhyāna in Buddhism Central to Zen is the practice of dhyana or meditation. Observing the breath[edit] Venerable Hsuan Hua meditating in the Lotus Position. Hong Kong, 1953. During sitting meditation, practitioners usually assume a position such as the lotus position, half-lotus, Burmese, or seiza postures, using the dhyāna mudrā. To regulate the mind, awareness is directed towards counting or watching the breath or by bringing that awareness to the energy center below the navel (see also ānāpānasati).[web 1] Often, a square or round cushion placed on a padded mat is used to sit on; in some other cases, a chair may be used. This practice may simply be called sitting dhyāna, which is zuòchán (坐禅) in Chinese, and zazen (坐禅) in Japanese. Observing the mind[edit] In the Sōtō school of Zen, meditation with no objects, anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference. Considerable textual, philosophical, and phenomenological justification of this practice can be found throughout Dōgen's Shōbōgenzō, as for example in the "Principles of Zazen"[web 2] and the "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen".[web 3] In the Japanese language, this practice is called Shikantaza. Intensive group meditation[edit] Intensive group meditation may be practiced occasionally in some temples. In the Japanese language, this practice is called Sesshin. While the daily routine may require monks to meditate for several hours each day, during the intensive period they devote themselves almost exclusively to the practice of sitting meditation. The numerous 30–50 minute long meditation periods are interwoven with rest breaks, meals, and short periods of work that are performed with the same mindfulness; nightly sleep is kept to seven hours or less. In modern Buddhist practice in Japan, Taiwan, and the West, lay students often attend these intensive practice sessions, which are typically 1, 3, 5, or 7 days in length. These are held at many Zen centers, especially in commemoration of the Buddha's attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi. One distinctive aspect of Zen meditation in groups is the use of a kyosaku, a flat, wooden slat used to strike meditators with the intention of keeping them focused and awake. Insight – Kōan practice[edit] Main article: Kōan Chinese character for "nothing" (Hanyu Pinyin: wú; Japanese pronunciation: mu; Korean pronunciation: mu). It figures in the famous Zhaozhou's dog kōan At the beginning of the Sòng dynasty, practice with the kōan method became popular, whereas others practiced "silent illumination."[12] This became the source of some differences in practice between the Línjì and Cáodòng schools. A kōan, literally "public case", is a story or dialogue, describing an interaction between a Zen master and a student. These anecdotes give a demonstration of the master's insight. Koans emphasize the non-conceptional insight that the Buddhist teachings are pointing to. Koans can be used to provoke the "great doubt", and test a student's progress in Zen practice. Kōan-inquiry may be practiced during zazen (sitting meditation), kinhin (walking meditation), and throughout all the activities of daily life. Kōan practice is particularly emphasized by the Japanese Rinzai school, but it also occurs in other schools or branches of Zen depending on the teaching line.[13] The Zen student's mastery of a given kōan is presented to the teacher in a private interview (referred to in Japanese as dokusan (独参), daisan (代参), or sanzen (参禅)). While there is no unique answer to a kōan, practitioners are expected to demonstrate their understanding of the kōan and of Zen through their responses. The teacher may approve or disapprove of the answer and guide the student in the right direction. The interaction with a Zen teacher is central in Zen, but makes Zen practice also vulnerable to misunderstanding and exploitation.[14] Zen chanting and liturgy[edit] See also: Buddhist chant A practice in many Zen monasteries and centers is a daily liturgy service. Practitioners chant major sutras such as the Heart Sutra, chapter 25 of the Lotus Sutra (often called the "Avalokiteśvara Sutra"), Song of the Precious Mirror Samadhi, the Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī, and other minor mantras. The butsudan is the altar in a monastery where offerings are made to the images of the Buddha or bodhisattvas. The same term is also used in Japanese homes for the altar where one prays to and communicates with deceased family members. As such, reciting liturgy in Zen can be seen as a means to connect with the Bodhisattvas of the past. Liturgy is often used during funerals, memorials, and other special events as means to invoke the aid of supernatural powers.[citation needed] Chanting usually centers on major bodhisattvas like Avalokiteśvara (see Guanyin) and Manjushri. According to Mahayana Buddhism, bodhisattvas are beings who have taken vows to remain in saṃsāra to help all beings achieve liberation from it. Since the Zen practitioner's aim is to walk the bodhisattva path, chanting can be used as a means to connect with these beings and realize this ideal within oneself. Lay services[edit] Though in western Zen the emphasis is on zen-meditation, and the application of Zen-teachings in daily life, Japanese Zen also serves a function in public religion. Funerals play an important role as a point of contact between the monks and the laity. Statistics published by the Sōtō school state that 80 percent of Sōtō laymen visit their temple only for reasons having to do with funerals and death. Seventeen percent visit for spiritual reasons and 3 percent visit a Zen priest at a time of personal trouble or crisis.[15] Zen teachings[edit] Main article: Doctrinal background of Zen Though Zen-narrative states that it is a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words",[16] Zen does have a rich doctrinal background, which is firmly grounded in the Buddhist tradition.[17] It was thoroughly influenced by the Chinese understanding of Yogacara and the Buddha-nature doctrine,[18][19] Zen integrates both Yogacara and Madhyamaka,[20] and the influence of Madhyamaka can be discerned in the stress on non-conceptual insight and the paradoxical language of the koans.[18][web 4][21][note 2] Most essential are "the most fundamental teaching that we are already originally enlightened",[22] and the Bodhisattva ideal, which supplements insight with Karuṇā, compassion with all sentient beings.[23] To point out 'essential Zen-teachings' is almost impossible, given the variety of schools, the extended history of 1500 years, and the emphasis on suchness, reality just-as-it-is, which has to be expressed in daily life, not in words.[citation needed] But common to most schools and teachings is this emphasis on suchness and Buddha-nature, the Bodhisattva-ideal, and the priority of zazen.[citation needed] Zen teachings can be likened to "the finger pointing at the moon".[24] Zen teachings point to the moon, awakening, "a realization of the unimpeded interpenetration of the dharmadhatu".[25] But the Zen-tradition also warns against taking its teachings, the pointing finger, to be this insight itself.[26][web 5][web 6][27] The various traditions lay various emphases in their teachings and practices: There are two different ways of understanding and actually practicing Zen. These two different ways are termed in Chinese pen chueh and shih-chueh respectively. The term pen chueh refers to the belief that one’s mind is from the beginning of time fully enlightened, while shih-chueh refers to the belief that at some point in time we pass from imprisonment in ignorance and delusion to a true vision of Zen realization: “Our enlightenment is timeless, yet our realization of it occurs in time.” According to this belief experiencing a moment of awakening in this life is of central importance.[28] Rinzai[edit] Main article: Rinzai school The Rinzai school is the Japanese lineage of the Chinese Linji school, which was founded during the Tang dynasty by Linji Yixuan.The Rinzai school emphasizes kensho, insight into one's true nature.[29] This is followed by so-called post-satori practice, further practice to attain Buddhahood.[30][31][32] Other Zen-teachers have also expressed sudden insight followed by gradual cultivation. Jinul, a 12th-century Korean Seon master, followed Zongmi, and also emphasized that insight into our true nature is sudden, but is to be followed by practice to ripen the insight and attain full buddhahood. This is also the standpoint of the contemporary Sanbo Kyodan, according to whom kenshō is at the start of the path to full enlightenment.[33] To attain this primary insight and to deepen it, zazen and kōan-study is deemed essential. This trajectory of initial insight followed by a gradual deepening and ripening is expressed by Linji in his Three Mysterious Gates and Hakuin Ekaku's Four Ways of Knowing.[23] Another example of depiction of stages on the path are the Ten Bulls, which detail the steps on the path. Japanese buddhist monk from the Sōtō Zen sect Soto[edit] Main article: Sōtō Sōtō is the Japanese line of the Chinese Caodong school, which was founded during the Tang Dynasty by Dongshan Liangjie. The Sōtō-school has de-emphasized kōans since Gentō Sokuchū (circa 1800), and instead emphasized shikantaza.[34] Dogen, the founder of Soto in Japan, emphasised that practice and awakening cannot be separated. By practicing shikantaza, attainment and Buddhahood are already being expressed.[35] For Dogen, zazen, or shikantaza, is the essence of Buddhist practice.[36] Gradual cultivation was also recognized by Dongshan Liangjie.[web 7] Sanbo Kyodan[edit] The Sanbo Kyodan combines Soto and Rinzai teachings.[33][37] It is a Japanese lay organization, which is highly influential in the West through the work of Hakuun Yasutani, Philip Kapleau, Yamada Koun, and Taizan Maezumi. Yasutani mentions three goals of Zen: development of concentration (joriki), awakening (kensho-godo), and realization of Zen in daily life (mujodo no taigen).[33] Kensho is stressed,[37] but also post-satori practice.[38][note 3] Zen scripture[edit] Main article: Zen and Sutras The role of scripture in Zen[edit] Contrary to the popular image, literature does play a role in the Zen-training. Zen is deeply rooted in the teachings and doctrines of Mahāyāna Buddhism.[39]Unsui, Zen-monks, "are expected to become familiar with the classics of the Zen canon".[40] A review of the early historical documents and literature of early Zen masters clearly reveals that they were well versed in numerous Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtras,[5][note 4][note 5][5][note 6] including Madhyamaka.[18] Especially the Lotus Sutra played a large role in the development of East Asian Buddhism, including Zen.[web 8] Nevertheless, Zen is often pictured as anti-intellectual.[39] This picture of Zen emerged during the Song Dynasty (960–1297), when Chán became the dominant form of Buddhism in China, and gained great popularity among the educated and literary classes of Chinese society. The use of koans, which are highly stylized literary texts, reflects this popularity among the higher classes.[43] The famous saying "do not establish words and letters", attributed in this period to Bodhidharma,[44] ...was taken not as a denial of the recorded words of the Buddha or the doctrinal elaborations by learned monks, but as a warning to those who had become confused about the relationship between Buddhist teaching as a guide to the truth and mistook it for the truth itself.[45] What the Zen tradition emphasizes is that the enlightenment of the Buddha came not through conceptualization, but rather through direct insight.[46] But direct insight has to be supported by study and understanding (hori[47]) of the Buddhist teachings and texts.[48][note 7] Intellectual understanding without practice is called yako-zen, "wild fox Zen", but "one who has only experience without intellectual understanding is a zen temma, 'Zen devil'".[50] Grounding Chán in scripture[edit] The early Buddhist schools in China were each based on a specific sutra. At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, by the time of the Fifth Patriarch Hongren (601–674), the Zen school became established as a separate school of Buddhism.[51] It had to develop a doctrinal tradition of its own to ascertain its position,[43] and to ground its teachings in a specific sutra. Various sutras were used for this, even before the time of Hongren: the Śrīmālādevī Sūtra (Huike),[52]Awakening of Faith (Daoxin),[52] the Lankavatara Sutra (East Mountain School),[52][5] the Diamond Sutra[53] (Shenhui),[52] the Platform Sutra.[5][53] None of these sutras was decisive though, since the school drew inspiration from a variety of sources.[54] Subsequently, the Zen tradition produced a rich corpus of written literature which has become a part of its practice and teaching. Other influential sutras are the Vimalakirti Sutra,[55][56][57]Avatamsaka Sutra,[58] the Shurangama Sutra,[59] and the Mahaparinirvana Sutra.[60] Zen literature[edit] See also: Zen literature The Zen-tradition developed a rich textual tradition, based on the interpretation of the Buddhist teachings and the recorded sayings of Zen-masters. Important texts are the Platform Sutra (8th century), attributed to Huineng ;[43] the Chán transmission records, teng-lu,[61] such as The Records of the Transmission of the Lamp (Ching-te ch'uan-teng lu), compiled by Tao-yün and published in 1004;[62] the "yü-lü" genre[63] consisting of the recorded sayings of the masters, and the encounter dialogues; the koan-collections, such as the "Gateless Gate" and the "Blue Cliff Record". 'and Dogen's Shobogenzo. Zen organization and institutions[edit] Main articles: Zen organisation and institutions, Zen ranks and hierarchy, Dharma transmission, and Zen lineage charts Religion is not only an individual matter, but "also a collective endeavour".[64] Though individual experience[65] and the iconoclastic picture of Zen[66] are emphasised in the Western world, the Zen-tradition is maintained and transferred by a high degree of institutionalisation and hierarchy.[67][68] In Japan, modernity has led to criticism of the formal system and the commencement of lay-oriented Zen-schools such as the Sanbo Kyodan[37] and the Ningen Zen Kyodan.[web 9] How to organize the continuity of the Zen-tradition in the West, constraining charismatic authority and the derailment it may bring on the one hand,[69][70][14] and maintaining the legitimacy and authority by limiting the number of authorized teachers on the other hand,[64] is a challenge for the developing Zen-communities in the West. Zen narratives[edit] Main article: Zen Narratives The Chán of the Tang Dynasty, especially that of Mazu and Linji with its emphasis on "shock techniques", in retrospect was seen as a golden age of Chán.[43] This picture has gained great popularity in the West in the 20th century, especially due to the influence of D.T. Suzuki,[71] and further popularized by Hakuun Yasutani and the Sanbo Kyodan.[65] This picture has been challenged, and complemented, since the 1970s by modern scientific research on Zen.[72][73][43][74][75][76] Modern scientific research on the history of Zen discerns three main narratives concerning Zen, its history and its teachings: Traditional Zen Narrative (TZN),[77][web 10] Buddhist Modernism (BM),[71] Historical and Cultural Criticism (HCC).[77] An external narrative is Nondualism, which claims Zen to be a token of a universal nondualist essence of religions.[78][79] History of Zen[edit] Chinese Chán[edit] Main article: Chinese Chán See also: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Periodisation[edit] The history of Chán in China can be divided in several periods. Zen as we know it today is the result of a long history, with many changes and contingent factors. Each period had different types of Zen, some of which remained influential while others vanished.[43][80] Ferguson distinguishes three periods from the 5th century into the 13th century: The Legendary period, from Bodhidharma in the late 5th century to the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE, in the middle of the Tang Dynasty. Little written information is left from this period.[81] It is the time of the Six Patriarchs, including Bodhidharma and Huineng, and the legendary "split" between the Northern and the Southern School of Chán.[43] The Classical period, from the end of the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE to the beginning of the Song Dynasty around 950 CE.[81] This is the time of the great masters of Chán, such as Mazu Daoyi and Linji Yixuan, and the creation of the yü-lü genre, the recordings of the sayings and teachings of these great masters. The Literary period, from around 950 to 1250,[81] which spans the era of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). In this time the gongan-collections were compiled, collections of sayings and deeds by the famous masters, appended with poetry and commentary. This genre reflects the influence of literati on the development of Chán. This period idealized the previous period as the "golden age" of Chán, producing the literature in which the spontaneity of the celebrated masters was portrayed. Although McRae has reservations about the division of Chán-history in phases or periods,[82] he nevertheless distinguishes four phases in the history of Chán:[83] Proto-Chán (c. 500–600) (Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 to 589) and Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE)). In this phase, Chán developed in multiple locations in northern China. It was based on the practice of dhyana, and is connected to the figures of Bodhidharma and Huike. Its principal text is the Two Entrances and Four Practices, attributed to Bodhidharma.[84] Early Chán (c. 600–900) (Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)). In this phase Chán took its first clear contours. Prime figures are the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren (601–674), his dharma-heir Yuquan Shenxiu (606?–706), the sixth patriarch Huineng (638–713), antagonist of the quintessential Platform Sutra, and Shenhui (670–762), whose propaganda elevated Huineng to the status of sixth patriarch. Prime factions are the Northern School, Southern School and Oxhead School.[85] Middle Chán (c. 750–1000) (from An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) till Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960/979)). In this phase developed the well-known Chán of the iconoclastic zen-masters. Prime figures are Mazu Daoyi (709–788), Shitou Xiqian (710–790), Linji Yixuan (died 867), and Xuefeng Yicun (822–908). Prime factions are the Hongzhou school and the Hubei faction[note 8] An important text is the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (952), which gives a great amount of "encounter-stories", and the well-known genealogy of the Chán-school.[88] Song Dynasty Chán (c. 950–1300). In this phase Chán took its definitive shape, including the picture of the "golden age" of the Chán of the Tang-Dynasty, and the use of koans for individual study and meditation. Prime figures are Dahui Zonggao (1089–1163), who introduced the Hua Tou practice, and Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091–1157), who emphasized Shikantaza. Prime factions are the Linji school and the Caodong school. The classic koan-collections, such as the Blue Cliff Record were assembled in this period,[89] which reflect the influence of the "literati" on the development of Chán.[90][44] In this phase Chán is transported to Japan, and exerts a great influence on Korean Seon via Jinul. Neither Ferguson nor McRae give a periodisation for Chinese Chán following the Song-dynasty, though McRae mentions [5.] "at least a postclassical phase or perhaps multiple phases".[91][note 9] Origins and Taoist influences (c. 200–500)[edit] See also: Han Dynasty, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism, and Six Dynasties The practice of Buddhist meditation was practiced in China centuries before the rise of Chán by people such as An Shigao (c. 148–180 CE) and his school who translated various meditation treatises (Chán-jing, 禪経). Other important translators of meditation texts were Kumārajīva (334–413 CE) and Buddhabhadra. These Chinese translations of mostly Indian Yogacara meditation manuals were the basis for the meditation techniques of Chinese Chan.[web 11] When Buddhism came to China from Gandhara (now Afghanistan) and India, it was initially adapted to the Chinese culture and understanding. Buddhism was exposed to Confucianist[92] and Taoist[93][94][95][96] influences.[note 10] Goddard quotes D.T. Suzuki,[note 11] calling Chán a "natural evolution of Buddhism under Taoist conditions."[97] Buddhism was first identified to be "a barbarian variant of Taoism":[95] Judging from the reception by the Han of the Hinayana works and from the early commentaries, it appears that Buddhism was being perceived and digested through the medium of religious Daoism (Taoism). Buddha was seen as a foreign immortal who had achieved some form of Daoist nondeath. The Buddhists’ mindfulness of the breath was regarded as an extension of Daoist breathing exercises.[60] Taoist terminology was used to express Buddhist doctrines in the oldest translations of Buddhist texts,[95] a practice termed ko-i, "matching the concepts",[98] while the emerging Chinese Buddhism had to compete with Taoism and Confucianism.[92] The first Buddhist recruits in China were Taoists.[95] They developed high esteem for the newly introduced Buddhist meditational techniques,[99] and blended them with Taoist meditation.[100] Representatives of early Chinese Buddhism like Sengzhao and Tao Sheng were deeply influenced by the Taoist keystone works of Laozi and Zhuangzi.[101] Against this background, especially the Taoist concept of naturalness was inherited by the early Chán disciples:[102] they equated – to some extent – the ineffable Tao and Buddha-nature,[103] and thus, rather than feeling bound to the abstract "wisdom of the sūtras", emphasized Buddha-nature to be found in "everyday" human life, just as the Tao.[103] In addition to Taoist ideas, also Neo-Taoist concepts were taken over in Chinese Buddhism.[98] Concepts such as "T’i -yung" (Essence and Function) and "Li-shih" (Noumenon and Phenomenon) were first taken over by Hua-yen Buddhism,[98] which consequently influenced Chán deeply.[58] One point of confusion for Chinese Buddhism was the two truths doctrine. Chinese thinking took this to refer to two ontological truths: reality exists on two levels, a relative level and an absolute level.[104] Taoists at first misunderstood sunyata to be akin to the Taoist non-being.[105] In Madhyamaka the two truths are two epistemological truths: two different ways to look at reality. Based on their understanding of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra the Chinese supposed that the teaching of the Buddha-nature was, as stated by that sutra, the final Buddhist teaching, and that there is an essential truth above sunyata and the two truths.[60] Legendary or Proto-Chán – Six Patriarchs (c. 500–600)[edit] Main articles: Bodhidharma, Southern and Northern Dynasties, and Sui Dynasty Traditionally the origin of Chán in China is credited to Bodhidharma, an Iranian language speaking Central Asian monk[106] or an Indian monk.[107] The story of his life, and of the Six Patriarchs, was constructed during the Tang Dynasty to lend credibility to the growing Chán-school.[43] Bodhidharma. Woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. Bodhidharma is recorded as having come into China during the time of Southern and Northern Dynasties to teach a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words".[16] Throughout Buddhist art, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is referred as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian" (碧眼胡:Bìyǎn hú) in Chinese Chan texts.[web 12] Only scarce historical information is available about him, but his hagiography developed when the Chan tradition grew stronger and gained prominence in the early 8th century. By this time a lineage of the six ancestral founders of Chán in China was developed.[43] The short text Two Entrances and Four Acts, written by T'an-lín (曇林; 506–574), contains teachings which are attributed to Bodhidharma. The text is known from the Dunhuang-manuscripts. The actual origins of Chán may lie in ascetic practitioners of Buddhism, who found refuge in forests and mountains.[108]Huike, "a dhuta (extreme ascetic) who schooled others"[108] and used the Srimala Sutra,[52] one of the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras ,[109] figures in the stories about Bodhidharma. Huike is regarded as the second Chán patriarch, appointed by Bodhidharma to succeed him. One of Huike's students, Sengcan, to whom is ascribed the Xinxin Ming, is regarded as the third patriarch. Early Chán – Tang Dynasty (c. 600–900)[edit] See also: Tang Dynasty With the fourth patriarch, Daoxin (道信 580–651),[52] Chán began to take shape as a distinct school. The link between Huike and Sengcan, and the fourth patriarch Daoxin "is far from clear and remains tenuous".[108] With Daoxin and his successor, the fifth patriarch Hongren (弘忍 601–674), there emerged a new style of teaching, which was inspired by the Chinese text Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana.[52] A large group of students gathered at a permanent residence, and extreme ascetism became outdated.[108] The period of Daoxin and Hongren came to be called the East Mountain Teaching, due to the location of the residence of Hongren at Huamgmei.[110][43] The term "East Mountain Teaching" was used by Shenxiu (神秀 606?–706), the most important successor to Hongren. By this time the group had grown into a matured congregation which became significant enough to be reckoned with by the ruling forces.[52] In 701 Shenxiu was invited to the Imperial Court by Empress Wu, who paid him imperial reverence. This gave his school the support and the legitimation of the imperial court.[111] The school was typified by a "loose practice,"[54] aiming to make meditation accessible to a larger audience.[54] Shenxiu used short formulas extracted from various sutras to package the teachings,[54] a style which is also being used in the Platform Sutra.[54] Members of the "East Mountain Teaching" shifted the alleged scriptural basis, realizing that the Awwakening of Faith is not a sutra but a sastra, commentary, and fabricated a lineage of Lankavatara Sutra masters, as being the sutra that preluded the Awakening of Faith.[52] This growing influence, and the need to be supported by patrons, is reflected in the campaign of Shenhui (670–762) for imperial patronage.[52] Shenhui was a successor to Hui-neng (惠能; 638–713), a minor student of Hongren.[110][43] At 731 Shenhui started to propagate that Huineng was the real successor of Hongren's, instead of the then publicly recognized successor Shenxiu.[43][110] A dramatic story of Huineng's life was created, as narrated in the Platform Sutra, which tells that there was a contest for the transmission of the title of patriarch. After being chosen by Hongren, the fifth patriarch, Huineng had to flee by night to Nanhua Temple in the south to avoid the wrath of Hongren's jealous senior disciples.[43][110] The Diamond Sutra was incorporated into the story as being the favorite sutra of Huineng, thereby shifting the alleged textual basis of the Chán-school again.[112] Shenhui succeeded in his campaign, and Huineng came to be regarded as the Sixth Patriarch.[110][43] Shenxiu's Northern School was denigrated as "gradual", in opposition to the self-acclaimed "sudden" approach of Shenhui's Southern School. Shenhui's story was so influential that all surviving schools regard Huineng as their ancestor. [43][110] Classical or Middle Chán (c. 750–1000)[edit] An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) till end of Tang Dynasty (907)[edit] Blue-eyed Central Asian monk and East-Asian monk. A fresco from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, Turfan of China, dated to the 9th century; although Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian,[113] modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasian figures of the same cave temple (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians,[114] an Eastern Iranian people who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th–8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th–13th century).[115] The An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) led to a loss of control by the Tang-dynasty, and changed the Chan scene again. Metropolitan Chan began to lose its status, while "other schools were arising in out-lying areas controlled by warlords. These are the forerunners of the Chan we know today."[116] The most important of these schools is the Hongzhou school (洪州宗) of Mazu, to which also belong Shitou, Baizhang, Huangbo and Linji. This school became the archetypal expression of Zen, with its emphasis on the personal expression of insight, and its rejection of positive statements of this insight.[108] Shitou is regarded as the Patriarch of Caodong (Jp. Sōtō), while Linji is regarded as the founder of Rinzai-Zen. During 845–846 Emperor Wuzong persecuted the Buddhist schools in China.[117] This persecution was devastating for metropolitan Chan, but the Chan school of Mazu and his likes survived, and took a leading role in the Chan of the later Tang.[117] This surviving rural Chan developed into the Five Houses of Chán (Ch. 五家) of Zen, or five "schools". These were not originally regarded as "schools" or "sects", but historically they have come to be understood that way. Most Zen lineages throughout Asia and the rest of the world originally grew from or were heavily influenced by the original five houses of Zen. Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960/979)[edit] See also: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period After the fall of the Tang Dynasty, China was without effective central control during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. China was divided into several autonomous regions. Support for Buddhism was limited to a few areas. The Hua-yen and T'ient-tai schools suffered from the changing circumstances, since they had depended on imperial support. The collapse of T'ang society also deprived the aristocratic classes of wealth and influence, which meant a further drawback for Buddhism. Shenxiu's Northern School and Henshui's Southern School didn't survive the changing circumstances. Nevertheless, chán emerged as the dominant stream within Chinese Buddhism, but with various schools developing various emphases in their teachings, due to the regional orientation of the period. The Fayan school, named after Fa-yen Wen-i (885–958) became the dominant school in the southern kingdoms of Nan-T'ang (Jiangxi, Chiang-hsi) and Wuyue (Che-chiang).[118] Literary Chán – Song Dynasty (c. 960–1300)[edit] See also: Song Dynasty The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period was followed by the Song Dynasty, which established a strong central government. During the Song Dynasty, Chán (禪) was used by the government to strengthen its control over the country, and Chán grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism. An ideal picture of the Chán of the Tang period was produced, which served the legacy of this newly acquired status, and the period of the Tang Dynasty came to be regarded as the "golden age" of Chan.[119][43] With the establishment of the Wu-shan (Gozan) system during the Southern Sung, the Chinese bureaucratic system entered into Zen temples throughout the country, and a highly organized system of temple rank and administration developed.[120] The Linji school became the dominant school within Chán, due to support from literati and the court.[121] Before the Song Dynasty, the Linji-school is rather obscure, and very little is known about its early history.[110] The first mention of Linji is in the Zutang ji, compiled in 952, 86 years after Linji's death.[121] But the Zutang ji pictures the Xuefeng Yicun lineage as heir to the legacy of Mazu and the Hongzhou-school.[121] According to Welter, the real founder of the Linji-school was Shoushan (or Baoying) Shengnian (首山省念)(926–993), a fourth generation dharma-heir of Linji. The Tiansheng Guangdeng lu (天聖廣燈錄), "Tiansheng Era Expanded Lamp Record", compiled by the official Li Zunxu (李遵勗)(988–1038) confirms the status of Shoushan Shengnian, but also pictures Linji as a major Chan patriarch and heir to the Mazu, displacing the prominence of the Fayan-lineage.[121] It also established the slogan of "a special transmission outside the teaching", supporting the Linji-school claim of "Chan as separate from and superior to all other Buddhist teachings".[122] During the 12th century, a clear difference between the Linji and the Caodong schools emerged. The two schools were competing for support of the literati, who became more powerful when the Song-government started to limit their influence on society. Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091–1157) of the Caodong-school emphasized silent illumination or shikantaza as a means for solitary practice, which could be undertaken by lay-followers. Dahui Zonggao (1089–1163) introduced k'an-hua practice, "observing the word-head", as a means of solitary practice.[123] During the Song, both schools were exported to Japan, where they eventually became two clearly distinguished schools or "sects". Post-Classical Chán (c. 1300 – present)[edit] This was different from China, where the Buddhist schools tended to coalesce into a syncretic Chinese Buddhist school. Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368)[edit] See also: Yuan Dynasty The Yuan Dynasty was the empire established by Kublai Khan, the leader of Mongolian Borjigin clan, after Mongol conquered the Jin and the Southern Song dynasty in China. Chán-teachings started to be mixed with Pure Land teachings, as in the teachings of Zhongfeng Mingben (1263–1323). Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)[edit] See also: Ming Dynasty Chán Buddhism enjoyed something of a revival in the Ming Dynasty with teachers such as Hanshan Deqing (憨山德清), who wrote and taught extensively on both Chán and Pure Land Buddhism; Miyun Yuanwu (密雲圓悟), who came to be seen posthumously as the first patriarch of the Ōbaku Zen school; as well as Yunqi Zhuhong (雲棲祩宏) and Ouyi Zhixu (蕅益智旭). Chán was taught alongside Pure Land Buddhism in many Chinese Buddhist monasteries. In time much of the distinction between them was lost, and many masters taught both Chán and Pure Land.[124] With the downfall of the Ming Dynasty several Chinese Chán-masters fled to Japan, founding the Ōbaku school.[125] Qing Dynasty (1644–1912)[edit] See also: Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China. In the beginning of the Qing Dynasty Chán was "reinvented", by the "revival of beating and shouting practices" by Miyun Yuanwu (1566–1642), and the publication of the Wudeng yantong ("The strict transmission of the five Chan schools") by Feiyin Tongrong’s (1593–1662), a dharma heir of Miyun Yuanwu. The book placed self-proclaimed Chan monks without proper Dharma transmission in the category of "lineage unknown" (sifa weixiang), thereby excluding several prominent Caodong-monks.[126] Modern times[edit] See also: Republic of China (1912–1949), China, and Taiwan Shuixin Chán Temple in Anhai Town, Fujian, China After further centuries of decline during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), Chán was revived again in the early 20th century by Hsu Yun (虛雲) (1840–1959), a well-known figure of 20th-century Chinese Buddhism. Many Chán teachers today trace their lineage back to Hsu Yun, including Sheng-yen (聖嚴) and Hsuan Hua (宣化), who have propagated Chán in the West where it has grown steadily through the 20th and 21st centuries. Chán was repressed in China during the 1960s in the Cultural Revolution, but subsequently has been re-asserting itself[citation needed] on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan and Hong Kong as well as among Overseas Chinese. Spread of Chán[edit] Thiền in Vietnam[edit] See also: Vietnamese Thiền and Buddhism in Vietnam Thiền monks performing a service in Huế. According to traditional accounts of Vietnam, in 580 an Indian monk named Vinitaruci (Vietnamese: Tì-ni-đa-lưu-chi) travelled to Vietnam after completing his studies with Sengcan, the third patriarch of Chinese Chán. This, then, would be the first appearance of Vietnamese Thiền Buddhism. Other early Vietnamese Chán schools included the Vô Ngôn Thông, which was associated with the teaching of Mazu, and the Thảo Đường, which incorporated nianfo chanting techniques; both were founded by Chinese monks. Seon in Korea[edit] See also: Korean Seon and Buddhism in Korea Seon monk in Seoul, South Korea Seon was gradually transmitted into Korea during the late Silla period (7th through 9th centuries) as Korean monks of predominantly Hwaeom (華嚴) and Consciousness-only (唯識) background began to travel to China to learn the newly developing tradition. Seon received its most significant impetus and consolidation from the Goryeo monk Jinul (知訥) (1158–1210), who established a reform movement and introduced koan practice to Korea. Jinul established the Songgwangsa (松廣寺) as a new center of pure practice. Zen in Japan[edit] See also: Buddhism in Japan and Japanese Zen Sojiji Temple, of the Soto Zen school, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Japan Zen was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myōan Eisai traveled to China and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which eventually perished.[web 13] Decades later, Nanpo Shōmyō (南浦紹明?) (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential and only surviving lineage of Rinzai in Japan.[web 13] In 1215, Dōgen, a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing. After his return, Dōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong. The three traditional schools of Zen in contemporary Japan are the Sōtō (曹洞?), Rinzai (臨済?), and Ōbaku (黃檗?). Of these, Sōtō is the largest, and Ōbaku the smallest, with Rinzai in the middle. These schools are further divided into subschools by head temple, with two head temples for Sōtō (Sōji-ji and Eihei-ji, with Sōji-ji having a much larger network), fourteen head temples for Rinzai, and one head temple (Manpuku-ji) for Ōbaku, for a total of 17 head temples. The Rinzai head temples, which are most numerous, have substantial overlap with the traditional Five Mountain System, and include Myoshin-ji, Nanzen-ji, Tenryū-ji, Daitoku-ji, and Tofuku-ji, among others. Besides these traditional organizations, there are modern Zen organisations which have especially attracted Western lay followers, namely the Sanbo Kyodan and the FAS Society. Zen in the Western world[edit] See also: Buddhism in the West and Zen in the United States Although it is difficult to trace the precise moment when the West first became aware of Zen as a distinct form of Buddhism, the visit of Soyen Shaku, a Japanese Zen monk, to Chicago during the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 is often pointed to as an event that enhanced the profile of Zen in the Western world. It was during the late 1950s and the early 1960s that the number of Westerners other than the descendants of Asian immigrants who were pursuing a serious interest in Zen began to reach a significant level. Japanese Zen has gained the greatest popularity in the West. The various books on Zen by Reginald Horace Blyth, Alan Watts, Philip Kapleau and D. T. Suzuki[citation needed] published between 1950 and 1975, contributed to this growing interest in Zen in the West, as did the interest on the part of beat poets such as Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder.[127] See also[edit] List of Buddhists Outline of Buddhism Timeline of Buddhism Chinese Chán 101 Zen Stories Notes[edit] ^ Dumoulin writes in his preface to Zen. A History. Part One: India and China: "Zen (Chin. Ch'an, an abbreviation of ch'an-na, which transliterates the Sanskrit Dhyāna (Devanagari: ध्यान) or its Pali cognate Jhāna (Sanskrit; Pāli झान) , terms meaning "meditation") is the name of a Mahayana Buddhist school of meditation originating in China. It is characterized by the practice of meditation in the lotus position (Jpn., zazen; Chin., tso-ch'an and the use of the koan (Chin., kung-an), as well as by the enlightenment experience of satori[2] ^ According to Kalupahana, the influence of Yofacara is stronger in the ts'ao-tung school and the tradition of silent meditation, while the influence of Madhyamaka is clear in the koan-tradition and its stress on insight and the use of paradoxical language.[21] ^ Yasutani discerns five kinds of Zen:[33] Bompu Zen: aimed at bodily and mental health Gedo Zen:, practices like dhyana, Yoga and Christian contemplation which are akin to Zen, but not Buddhist Shojo Zen: the Hinayana, aimed at one's own liberation Daijo Zen: the Mahayana, aimed at attaining kensho and the realisation of Zen in daily life Saijojo Zen: in which practice is enlightenment ^ Sasaki's translation of the Linji yulu contains an extensive biography of 62 pages, listing influential Chinese Buddhist texts which played a role in Song dynasty Chán.[41] ^ Albert Low: "It is evident that the masters were well versed in the sutras. Zen master Tokusan, for example, knew the Diamond Sutra well and, before meeting with his own Zen master, lectured upon it extensively; the founder of the Zen sect, Bodhidharma, the very one who preached selfrealization outside the scriptures, nevertheless advocated the Lankavatara Sutra; Zen master Hogen knew the Avatamsaka Sutra well, and koan twenty-six in the Mumonkan, in which Hogen is involved, comes out of the teaching of that sutra. Other koans, too, make reference directly or indirectly to the sutras. The autobiography of yet another Zen master, Hui Neng, subsequently became the Platform Sutra, one of those sutras so condemned by those who reject intellectual and sutra studies"[42] ^ Poceski: "Direct references to specific scriptures are relatively rare in the records of Mazu and his disciples, but that does not mean that they rejected the canon or repudiated its authority. To the contrary, one of the striking features of their records is that they are filled with scriptural quotations and allusions, even though the full extend of their usage of canonical sources is not immediately obvious and its discernment requires familiarity with Buddhist literature." See source for a full-length example from "one of Mazu's sermons", in which can be found references to the Vimalakīrti Scripture, the Huayan Scripture, the Mahāsamnipata-sūtra, the Foshuo Foming Scripture 佛說佛名經, the Lankāvatāra scripture and the Faju jing.[5] ^ Hakuin goes as far as to state that the buddhat path even starts with study: "[A] person [...] must first gain wide-ranging knowledge, accumulate a treasure-store of wisdom by studying all the Buddhist sutras and commentaries, reading through all the classic works Buddhist and nonBuddhist and perusing the writings of the wise men of other traditions. It is for that reason the vow states "the Dharma teachings are infinite, I vow to study them all.""[49] ^ McRae gives no further information on this "Hubei faction". It may be the continuation of Shenxiu's "Northern School". See Nadeau 2012 p.89.[86] Hebei was also the place where the Linji branch of chán arose.[87] ^ During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) Chán was part of a larger, syncretic Buddhist culture. A final phase can be distinguished from the 19th century onward, when western imperialism had a growing influence in South-East Asia, including China. A side effect of this imperial influence was the modernisation of Asian religions, adapting them to western ideas and rhetorical strategies.[71] ^ See also The Tao of Zen, which argues that Zen is almost entirely grounded in Taoist philosophy, though this fact is well covered by Mahayana Buddhism.[96] ^ Godard did not provide a source for this quote. References[edit] Published sources[edit] Citations ^ Harvey 1995, p. 159–169. ^ a b Dumoulin 2005a, p. xvii. ^ Yoshizawa 2010, p. 41. ^ Sekida 1989. ^ a b c d e f Poceski & Year unknown. ^ Borup 2008, p. 8. ^ Yampolski 2003a, p. 3. ^ Dumoulin 2005a, p. 48. ^ Lievens 1981, p. 52–53. ^ Dumoulin 2005a, p. 41–45. ^ Kasulis 2003, p. 24. ^ Blyth 1966. ^ Loori 2006. ^ a b Lachs 2006. ^ Bodiford 1992. ^ a b Dumoulin 2005a, p. 85-94. ^ Lai 1985, p. 17-18. ^ a b c Cheng 1981. ^ Lai 1985. ^ Newland 2001, p. 137. ^ a b Kalupahana 1994, p. 228-236. ^ Schlütter 2008, p. 3. ^ a b Low 2006. ^ Suzuki 1997, p. 154. ^ Buswell 1993, p. 245. ^ Abe 1996, p. 19. ^ Luk & Year unknown, p. 59-60. ^ Lachs 2012, p. 4. ^ Dumoulin 2005b, p. 380. ^ Sekida (translator) 1996. ^ Cleary 2010, p. xii–xiii, quoting Hakuin. ^ Yen 1996, p. 54). ^ a b c d Kapleau 1989. ^ Heine 2000, p. 245. ^ Tomoaki 2003, p. 280. ^ Tomoaki 2003, p. 284. ^ a b c Sharf 1995c. ^ Maezumi 2007. ^ a b Low 2000. ^ Sharf 1995c, p. 427. ^ Sasaki 2009. ^ Low 2000, p. 4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p McRae 2003. ^ a b Welter 2000. ^ Welter 2000, p. 94. ^ Yanagida 2009, p. 62. ^ Hori 2000, p. 296. ^ Hori 2000, p. 295-297. ^ Yoshizawa 2009, p. 42. ^ Hori 2000, p. 297. ^ Ferguson 2000, p. 17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lai 2003, p. 17. ^ a b McRae 2003, p. 62. ^ a b c d e Lai 2003, p. 18. ^ Domoulin-2005a, p. 49-51. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 157-158. ^ Low 2000, p. 83-112. ^ a b Dumoulin 2005a, p. 45-49. ^ Low 2000, p. 135-154. ^ a b c Lai 2003. ^ Welter 2000, p. 82-86. ^ Welter 2000, p. 83. ^ Chappell 1993, p. 192. ^ a b Koné 2000. ^ a b Sharf 1995b. ^ McRae 2002. ^ Borup 2008. ^ Hori 1994. ^ Bell 2002. ^ Lachs 1999. ^ a b c McMahan 2008. ^ Sharf 1993. ^ Sharf 1995. ^ McRae 2005. ^ Heine 2007. ^ Jorgensen 1991. ^ a b Heine 2008, p. 6. ^ Wolfe 2009, p. iii. ^ Katz 2007. ^ Ferguson 2000. ^ a b c Ferguson 2000, p. 3. ^ McRae 2003, p. 11-15. ^ McRae 2003, p. 11-21. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13, 15–17. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13, 17–18. ^ Nadeau 2012, p. 89. ^ Yanagida 2009, p. 63. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13, 18–19. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13, 19–21. ^ Gimello 1994. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13. ^ a b Brown Holt 1995. ^ Goddard 2007, p. 10. ^ Verstappen 2004, p. 5. ^ a b c d Fowler 2005, p. 79. ^ a b Grigg 1994. ^ Goddard 2007, p. 11. ^ a b c Oh 2000. ^ Dumoulin 2005a, p. 65. ^ Dumoulin 2005a, p. 64. ^ Dumoulin 2005a, pp. 70&74. ^ Dumoulin 2005a, p. 167. ^ a b Dumoulin 2005a, p. 168. ^ Lai 2003, p. 11. ^ Lai 2003, p. 8. ^ Broughton 1999, p. 54-55. ^ Broughton 1999, p. 8. ^ a b c d e Whalen Lai 1985. ^ McRae 2004. ^ a b c d e f g Dumoulin 2005a. ^ McRae 2003, pp. 33–36. ^ Lai 2003, p. 17-18. ^ von Le Coq, Albert. (1913). Chotscho: Facsimile-Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Königlich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan in Ost-Turkistan. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen), im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Königlichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler-Institutes, Tafel 19. (Accessed 3 September 2016). ^ Gasparini, Mariachiara. "A Mathematic Expression of Art: Sino-Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin," in Rudolf G. Wagner and Monica Juneja (eds), Transcultural Studies, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, No 1 (2014), pp 134–163. ISSN 2191-6411. See also endnote #32. (Accessed 3 September 2016.) ^ Hansen, Valerie (2012), The Silk Road: A New History, Oxford University Press, p. 98, ISBN 978-0-19-993921-3. ^ Yampolski 2003a, p. 11. ^ a b Yampolski 2003a, p. 15. ^ Welter 2000, p. 86-87. ^ McRae 1993, pp. 119–120. ^ Yampolski 2003b, p. 266. ^ a b c d Welter & year unknownb. ^ Young 2009. ^ Schlütter 2008. ^ Sharf 2002. ^ Dumoulin 2005b, p. 299. ^ Meng-Tat Chia 2011. ^ Aitken 1994. Source list Abe, Masao; William R. LeFleur (translator) (1989), Zen and Western Thought, University of Hawaii Press  Abe, Masao; Heine, Seteven (1996), Zen and Comparative Studies, University of Hawaii Press  Aitken, Robert (1994), Foreword to "A Buddhist Bible", Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press  Anderson, Reb (2000), Being Upright: Zen Meditation and the Bodhisattva Precepts, Rodmell Press  Arokiasamy, Arul M. (2005), Zen: Awakening to Your Original Face, Chennai, India: Thiruvanmiyur  Batchelor, Martine (2004), The Path Of Compassion: The Bodhisattva Precepts, Rowman Altamira  Bell, Sandra (2002), "Scandals in emerging Western Buddhism", Westward Dharma: Buddhism beyond Asia (PDF), Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 230–242  Benesch, Oleg (2016), Reconsidering Zen, Samurai, and the Martial Arts, The Asia Pacific Journal: Japan Focus  Bodiford, William M. (1992), "Zen in the Art of Funerals: Ritual Salvation in Japanese Buddhism", History of Religions, 32 (2): 150  Bodiford, William M. (1993), Sōtō Zen in Medieval Japan, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-8248-1482-7  Borup, Jørn (2008), Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism: Myōshinji, a Living Religion, Brill Publishers  Broughton, Jeffrey L. (1999), The Bodhidharma Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21972-4  Brown Holt, Linda (1995), "From India to China: Transformations in Buddhist Philosophy", Qi: The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health & Fitness  Buswell, Robert E. (1991), "The "Short-cut" Approach of K'an-hua Meditation: The Evolution of a Practical Subitism in Chinese Ch'an Buddhism". In: Peter N. Gregory (editor) (1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Buswell, Robert E (1993), Ch'an Hermeneutics: A Korean View. In: Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (ed.)(1993), Buddhist Hermeneutics, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Blyth, R. H. (1966), Zen and Zen Classics, Volume 4, Tokyo: Hokuseido Press  Chappell, David W. (1993), Hermeneutical Phases in Chinese Buddhism. In: Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (ed.)(1993), Buddhist Hermeneutics, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Cheng, Hsueh-Li (1981), "The Roots of zen Buddhism", Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 8: 451–478  Cleary, Thomas (2010), Translator's introduction. The Undying Lamp of Zen. The Testament of Zen Master Torei, Boston & London: Shambhala Publications  Collins, Randall (2000), The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change, Harvard University Press  Dumoulin, Heinrich (2000), A History of Zen Buddhism, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.  Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005a), Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 1: India and China, World Wisdom Books, ISBN 978-0-941532-89-1  Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005b), Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 2: Japan, World Wisdom Books, ISBN 978-0-941532-90-7  Faure, Bernard (2000), Visions of Power. Imaging Medieval Japanese Buddhism, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Ferguson, Andy (2000), Zen's Chinese Heritage, Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-163-7  Ford, James Myoun, A Note On Dharma Transmission And The Institutions Of Zen  Foulk, T. Griffith (n.d.), History of the Soto Zen School  Fowler, Merv (2005), Zen Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press  Gimello, Robert M. (1994), Marga and Culture: Learning, Letters, and Liberation in Northern Sung Ch'an. In: Buswell & Gimello (editors)(1994), Paths to Liberation. Pages 475–505, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Goddard, Dwight (2007), "History of Ch'an Buddhism previous to the times of Hui-neng (Wie-lang)", A Buddhist Bible, Forgotten Books  Gregory, Peter N. (1991), Sudden Enlightenment Followed by Gradual Cultivation: Tsung-mi's Analysis of mind. In: Peter N. Gregory (editor)(1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Gregory, Peter N. (1993), What Happened to the "Perfect Teaching"? Another lOok at Hua-yen Buddhist hermeneutics. In: Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (ed.)(1993), Buddhist Hermeneutics, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Grigg, Ray (1994), The Tao Of Zen, Charles E. Tuttle Company  Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press  Haskel, Peter (1984), Bankei Zen. Translations from The Record of Bankei, New York: Grove Weidenfeld  Heine, Steven; Wright, Dale S. (2000). The Koan: Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511748-4.  Heine, Steven (2007), "A Critical Survey of Works on Zen since Yampolsky.", Philosophy East & West, 57 (4): 577–592  Heine, Steven (2008), Zen Skin, Zen Marrow  Hisamatsu, Shin'ichi; Gishin Tokiwa; Christopher Ives (2002), Critical Sermons of the Zen Tradition: Hisamatsu's Talks on Linji, University of Hawaii Press  Hori, Victor Sogen (1994), "Teaching and Learning in the Zen Rinzai Monastery" (PDF), Journal of Japanese Studies, 20 (1): 5–35 [dead link] Hori, Victor Sogen (2000), Koan and Kensho in the Rinzai Zen Curriculum. In: Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright (eds)(2000): "The Koan. Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Hori, Victor Sogen (2005), Introduction. In: Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 2: Japan. World Wisdom Books.ISBN 978-0-941532-90-7. Pagina xiii – xxi (PDF)  Hu Shih (1953), "Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China. Its History and Method", Philosophy East & West, 3 (1): 3–24  Huaijin, Nan (1997), Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen, York Beach: Samuel Weiser  Isshū, Miura; Sasaki, Ruth F. (1993), The Zen Koan, New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, ISBN 0-15-699981-1  Jaksch, Mary (2007), The Road to Nowhere. Koans and the Deconstruction of the Zen Saga (PDF)  Jorgensen, John (1991), "Heinrich Dumoulin's Zen Buddhism: A History", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 18 (4)  Kalupahana, David J. (1992), The Principles of Buddhist Psychology, Delhi: ri Satguru Publications  Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Kapleau, Philip (1989), The three pillars of Zen  Kasulis, Thomas P. (2003), Ch'an Spirituality. In: Buddhist Spirituality. Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World; edited by Takeuchi Yoshinori, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Katz, Jerry (2007), One: Essential Writings on Nonduality, Sentient Publications  Koné, Alioune (2000), Zen In Europe: A Survey of the Territory  Lachs, Stuart (2002), Richard Baker and the Myth of the Zen Roshi  Lachs, Stuart (2006), The Zen Master in America: Dressing the Donkey with Bells and Scarves  Lachs, Stuart (2011), When the Saints Go Marching In: Modern Day Zen Hagiography (PDF)  Lachs, Stuart (2012), Hua-t’ou : A Method of Zen Meditation (PDF)  Lai, Whalen (1985), "Ma-Tsu Tao-I And The Unfolding Of Southern Zen", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 12 (2/3): 173–192  Lai, Whalen (2003), Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. In Antonio S. Cua (ed.): Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (PDF), New York: Routledge, archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2014  Lathouwers, Ton (2000), Meer dan een mens kan doen. Zentoespraken, Rotterdam: Asoka  Liang-Chieh (1986), The Record of Tung-shan, Kuroda Institute (translator: William F. Powell)  Lievens, Bavo (1981), Ma-tsu. De gesprekken, Bussum: Het Wereldvenster  Loori, John Daido (2006), Sitting with Koans: Essential Writings on Zen Koan Introspection, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-369-9  Low, Albert (2000), Zen and the Sutras, Boston: Turtle Publishing  Low, Albert (2006), Hakuin on Kensho. The Four Ways of Knowing, Boston & London: Shambhala  Luk, Charles (translator) (n.d.), The Surangama Sutra (PDF), Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc., archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2013  Maezumi, Taizan; Glassman, Bernie (2007), The Hazy Moon of Enlightenment, Wisdom Publications  Matthiessen, Peter (1987), Nine-headed dragon river: Zen journals, 1969–1985, Shambhala  McCauley, Charles (2005), Zen and the Art of Wholeness, iUniverse  McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-518327-6  McRae, John (1991), Shen-hui and the Teaching of Sudden Enlightenment in Early Ch'an Buddhism. In: Peter N. Gregory (editor)(1991), Sudden and Gradual. Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen, The University Press Group Ltd  McRae, John (2004), The Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion's Roar and the Vimalakīrti Sutra (PDF), Berkeley, CA: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, ISBN 1886439311  McRae, John (2005), Critical introduction by John McRae to the reprint of Dumoulin's A history of Zen (PDF)  McRae, John (2008), The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, translated from the Chinese of Zongbao (Taishō Volume 48, Number 2008) (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2012  Meng-Tat Chia, Jack (2011), "A Review of Enlightenment in Dispute: The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism in Seventeenth-Century China" (PDF), Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 18  Mumon, Yamada (2004), The Ten Oxherding Pictures, University of Hawai'i press (translator: Victor Sōgen Hori)  Nadeau, Randall L. (2012), The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Chinese Religions, John Wiley & Sons  Newland, Guy, Schijn en werkelijkheid. De twee waarheden in de vier boeddhistische leerstelsels, KunchabPublicaties  Oh, Kang-nam (2000), "The Taoist Influence on Hua-yen Buddhism: A Case of the Scinicization of Buddhism in China", Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal (13)  Pajin, Dusan (1988), "On Faith in Mind – Translation and Analysis of the Hsin Hsin Ming", Journal of Oriental Studies, 26 (2): 270–288  Poceski, Mario (n.d.), Attitudes Towards Canonicity and Religious Authority in Tang Chan  Sato, Kemmyō Taira, D.T. Suzuki and the Question of War (PDF)  Sasaki, Ruth Fuller (2009), The Record of Linji. Translation and commentary by Ruth Fuller Sasaki. Edited by Thomas Yūhō Kirchner (PDF), Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press  Schlütter, Morten (2008), How Zen became Zen. The Dispute over Enlightenment and the Formation of Chan Buddhism in Song-Dynasty China, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-3508-8  Sekida, Katsuki (1989), Zen Training: Methods and Philosophy, Shambhala  Sekida, Katuski (1996), Two Zen Classics. Mumonkan, the gateless gate. Hekiganroku, the blue cliff record, New York & Tokyo: Weatherhill  Sharf, Robert H. (1993), "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism", History of Religions, 33 (1): 1–43  Sharf, Robert H. (1995), Whose Zen? Zen Nationalism Revisited (PDF)  Sharf, Robert H. (1995b), "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience" (PDF), NUMEN, 42  Sharf, Robert H. (1995c), "Sanbokyodan. Zen and the Way of the New Religions" (PDF), Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 22 (3–4)  Shimano, Eido T. (1991), Points of Departure: Zen Buddhism With a Rinzai View, Livingston Manor, NY: The Zen Studies Society Press, ISBN 0-9629246-0-1  Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks  Suzuki, Shunryu (1997), Branching streams flow in the darkness: Zen talks on the Sandokai, University of California Press  Swanson, Paul L. (1993), "The Spirituality of Emptiness in Early chinese Buddhism", in Takeuchi Yoshinori, Buddhist Spirituality. Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese, New York: Crossroad  Tetsuo, Otani (2003), To Transmit Dogen Zenji's Dharma (PDF)  Tomoaki, Tsuchida (2003), "The Monastic spirituality of Zen Master Dogen", in Takeuchi Yoshinori, Buddhist Spirituality. Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Torei (2010), The Undying Lamp of Zen. The Testament of Zen Master Torei, Boston & London: Shambhala (translator: Thomas Cleary)  Tweed, Thomas A. (2005), "American Occultism and Japanese Buddhism. Albert J. Edmunds, D. T. Suzuki, and Translocative History" (PDF), Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 32 (2): 249–281, archived from the original (PDF) on May 22, 2012  Verstappen, Stefan H. (2004), Blind Zen  Victoria, Brian Daizen (2006), Zen at war (Second ed.), Lanham e.a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.  Victoria, Brian Daizen (2010), "The "Negative Side" of D. T. Suzuki’s Relationship to War" (PDF), The Eastern Buddhist, 41 (2): 97–138  Waddell, Norman (2010), Foreword to "Wild Ivy: The Spiritual Autobiography of Zen Master Hakuin", Shambhala Publications  Wai-tao (translator) (1994), "The Diamond Sutra", A Buddhist Bible, Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press  Wayman, Alex and Hideko (1990), The Lion's roar of Queen Srimala, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Welter, Albert (n.d.), The Textual History of the Linji lu (Record of Linji): The Earliest Recorded Fragments  Welter, Albert, The Formation of the Linji lu: An Examination of the Guangdeng lu/Sijia yulu and Linji Huizhao Chanshi yulu. Versions of the Linji lu in Historical Context (PDF)  Welter, Albert (2000), Mahakasyapa's smile. Silent Transmission and the Kung-an (Koan) Tradition. In: Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright (eds)(2000): "The Koan. Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Wolfe, Robert (2009), Living Nonduality: Enlightenment Teachings of Self-Realization, Karina Library  Wright, Dale S. (2010), "Humanizing the Image of a Zen master: Taizan Maezumi Roshi", in Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright, Zen Masters, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Yampolski, Philip (1967), The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. Translated with notes by Philip B. Yampolsky, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-08361-0  Yampolski, Philip (2003a), "Chan. A Historical Sketch.", in Takeuchi Yoshinori, Buddhist Spirituality. Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Yampolski, Philip (2003b), "Zen. A Historical Sketch", in Takeuchi Yoshinori, Buddhist Spirituality. Indian, Southeast Asian, Tibetan, Early Chinese, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Yanagida, Seizan (2009), Historical Introduction to The Record of Linji. In: The record of Linji, translated by Ruth Fuller Sasakia e.a. Pages 59–115 (PDF), University of Hawaii Press  Yen, Chan Master Sheng (1996), Dharma Drum: The Life and Heart of Ch'an Practice, Boston & London: Shambhala  Yoshizawa, Katsuhiro (2009), The Religious Art of Zen Master Hakuin, Counterpoint Press  Young, Stuart (2009), Linji Lu and Chinese Orthodoxy. Review of "Albert Welter. The Linji lu and the Creation of Chan Orthodoxy: The Development of Chan's Records of Sayings Literature.  Web sources[edit] ^ Sheng, Yen. "Fundamentals of Meditation".  ^ Sōtō Zen Text Project. "Zazengi translation". Stanford University. Retrieved 15 November 2015.  ^ Sōtō Zen Text Project. "Fukan Zazengi". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-26.  ^ Dan Arnold, Madhyamaka Buddhist Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ "Pointing at the moon". Khandro.net. Retrieved 2013-02-04.  ^ "Lankavatara Sutra, chapter LXXXII, p.192 Suzuki-translation, p.223/224 in brackets". Lirs.ru. 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2013-02-04.  ^ "Soto Zen". The Soto Zen Buddhist Association. Retrieved February 19, 2013.  ^ https://tricycle.org/trikedaily/important-new-translation-complete-lotus-sutra/ ^ aqua-palette,Inc. "Ningen Zen". Ningen Zen. Retrieved 2013-02-04.  ^ "Andre van de Braak, ''ZEN SPIRITUALITY IN A SECULAR AGE. Charles Taylor and Zen Buddhism in the West''". Retrieved 2013-02-04.  ^ Thich Hang Dat, A REAPPRAISAL OF KUMĀRAJĪVA’S ROLE IN MEDIEVAL CHINESE BUDDHISM: AN EXAMINATION OF KUMĀRAJĪVA’S TRANSLATION TEXT ON “THE ESSENTIAL EXPLANATION OF THE METHOD OF DHYANA” Archived May 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Soothill, William Edward; Hodous, Lewis (1995), A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, London: RoutledgeCurzon ^ a b "Rinzai-Obaku Zen – What is Zen? – History". Zen.rinnou.net. Retrieved 2013-02-04.  Further reading[edit] Modern works D.T. Suzuki, Essays in Zen Buddhism, First Series (1927), Second Series (1933), Third Series (1934) R. H. Blyth, Zen and Zen Classics, 5 volumes (1960–1970; reprints of works from 1942 into the 1960s) Alan Watts, The Way of Zen (1957) Lu K'uan Yu (Charles Luk), Ch'an and Zen Teachings, 3 vols (1960, 1971, 1974), The Transmission of the Mind: Outside the Teaching (1974) Paul Reps & Nyogen Senzaki, Zen Flesh, Zen Bones (1957) Philip Kapleau, The Three Pillars of Zen (1966) Shunryu Suzuki, Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind (1970) Katsuki Sekida, Zen Training: Methods & Philosophy (1975) Classic historiography Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 1: India and China. World Wisdom Books.ISBN 978-0-941532-89-1 Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 2: Japan. World Wisdom Books.ISBN 978-0-941532-90-7 Critical historiography Overview Heine, Steven (2007), "A Critical Survey of Works on Zen since Yampolsky" (PDF), Philosophy East & West, 57 (4): 577–592  Formation of Chán in Tang & Song China Mcrae, John (2003), Seeing through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism. The University Press Group Ltd .ISBN 978-0-520-23798-8 Welter, Albert (2000), Mahakasyapa's smile. Silent Transmission and the Kung-an (Koan) Tradition. In: Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright (eds)(2000): "The Koan. Texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Schlütter, Morten (2008), How Zen became Zen. The Dispute over Enlightenment and the Formation of Chan Buddhism in Song-Dynasty China, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-3508-8  Japan Bodiford, William M. (1993), Sōtō Zen in Medieval Japan, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-8248-1482-7  Modern times Victoria, Brian Daizen (2006), Zen at war (Second ed.), Lanham e.a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.  Sharf, Robert H. (1995a), Whose Zen? Zen Nationalism Revisited (PDF)  Orientalism and East-West interchange Borup, Jorn (n.d.), Zen and the Art of inverting Orientalism: religious studies and genealogical networks  King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge  McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press.ISBN 978-0-19-518327-6 Contemporary practice Borup, Jørn (2008), Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism: Myōshinji, a Living Religion, Brill  Hori, Victor Sogen (1994), "Teaching and Learning in the Zen Rinzai Monastery" (PDF), Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol (1): 5–35  Buswell, Robert E. (1993a), The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea, Princeton University Press  External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zen Buddhism. Look up 禪 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Look up 禅 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Zen proverbs Look up zen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. thezensite Zen Buddhism WWW Virtual Library Chart of (Asian) Zen schools Sweeping Zen: Who's who in Zen Glossary of Japanese Zen terms v t e Zen Main articles Zen Chan Buddhism Korean Seon Japanese Zen Vietnamese Thiền Zen in the United States Persons Classical Chan Bodhidharma Huineng Mazu Daoyi Linji Yixuan Dongshan Liangjie Modern Chan Hsu Yun Taixu Hsuan Hua Sheng-yen Nan Huai-Chin Traditional Zen Dōgen Hakuin Ekaku Modern Rinzai Imakita Kosen Soyen Shaku D. T. Suzuki Soen Nakagawa Keido Fukushima Modern Soto Kodo Sawaki Shunryu Suzuki Sanbo Kyodan Hakuun Yasutani Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle Robert Aitken Philip Kapleau White Plum Asanga Taizan Maezumi Dennis Merzel Germany Zen Karlfried Graf Dürckheim Muho Noelke Korean Seon Jinul Seungsahn Seongcheol Daewon Vietnamese Thiền Pháp Hiền Vạn Hạnh Trần Nhân Tông Pháp Loa Thích Nhất Hạnh Thích Thanh Từ Chinese Chán Historical schools Chan Buddhism East Mountain Teaching Hongzhou school Five Houses of Chán Guiyang school Linji school Caodong school Contemporary schools Buddha's Light International Association Fo Guang Shan Zen Extinct schools Nōnin Fuke-shū Niō Zen Contemporary schools Sōtō Rinzai school Ōbaku Lay Schools Sanbo Kyodan Ningen Zen Kyodan Academic Zen Kyoto School Korean Seon Historical Nine mountain schools Contemporary Taego Order Jogye Order Vietnamese Thiền Contemporary schools Trúc Lâm Thảo Đường Wu Yantong - Vô ngôn Thông Temple Vạn Hạnh Zen Temple Trúc Lâm Temple USA Zen Shunryu Suzuki-lineage Shunryu Suzuki Zentatsu Richard Baker Mel Weitsman San Francisco Zen Center Tassajara Zen Mountain Center Kodo Sawaki-lineage Kodo Sawaki Antai-ji Kosho Uchiyama Shohaku Okumura Gudo Wafu Nishijima Brad Warner Jundo Cohen Treeleaf Zendo Yasutani-lineage Hakuun Yasutani Sanbo Kyodan Robert Baker Aitken John Tarrant Taizan Maezumi Zen Center of Los Angeles White Plum Asanga Tetsugen Bernard Glassman John Daido Loori Geoffrey Shugen Arnold Zen Peacemakers Joko Beck Dennis Merzel Kanzeon Zen Center Philip Kapleau-lineage Philip Kapleau Rochester Zen Center Toni Packer Other Soto-lineages Soyu Matsuoka Dainin Katagiri Kobun Chino Otogawa Gyokuko Carlson Soen Nakagawa-lineage Soen Nakagawa Eido Tai Shimano Zen Studies Society Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-ji Other Rinzai-lineages Kyozan Joshu Sasaki Omori Sogen Shodo Harada Keido Fukushima Pan-lineage Soto Zen Buddhist Association European Zen Sanbo Kyodan Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle Kodo Sawaki-lineage Taisen Deshimaru Other Soto-lineages Houn Jiyu-Kennett Zendo Kyodan Shinzan Miyamae Roshi Julian Daizan Skinner Roshi Doctrinal Background Buddha-nature East Asian Yogācāra Śūnyatā Influential Sutras Zen and Sutras Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra Diamond Sūtra Heart Sūtra Vimalakirti Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Śūraṅgama Sūtra Teachings Ten Bulls Shikantaza Five Ranks Sudden Enlightenment Kenshō Satori Three mysterious Gates Four Ways of Knowing Practice Zazen Shikantaza Kōan practice Sesshin Zazenkai Ango Hierarchy and titles Novice Unsui Buddhist initiation ritual Attendants Jikijitsu Jisha Priest Oshō Teacher Sensei Rōshi Zen master Institutional organisation Zen ranks and hierarchy Dharma transmission Zen lineage charts Temples Main Soto Temples Eihei-ji Sōji-ji Antai-ji Main Rinzai Temples Myōshin-ji Daitoku-ji Tōfuku-ji Zen literature Classic Long Scroll of the Treatise on the Two Entrances and Four Practices Platform Sutra Xinxin Ming Sandokai Denkoroku The Gateless Gate Shōbōgenzō Modern Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind Three Pillars of Zen Critical Zen at War Cultural influence Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance Related schools Huayan school Tiantai Pure Land Buddhism Academic research Heinrich Dumoulin Masao Abe Steven Heine William Bodiford Zen Buddhism Zen Buddhists Zen texts v t e Buddhism topics Outline Glossary Index Foundations Three Jewels Buddha Dharma Sangha Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way The Buddha Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Iconography in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula (son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta (cousin) Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions Key concepts Bardo Dharma Three Marks of Existence Impermanence Dukkha Anatta Pratītyasamutpāda Skandha Karma Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Kleshas Ignorance Craving Five hindrances Ten Fetters Indriya Enlightenment Parinirvana Tathātā Dharmas Two truths doctrine Śūnyatā Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Mind Stream Cosmology Ten spiritual realms Six realms Heaven Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell Three planes of existence Practices Refuge Buddhist devotion Puja Offerings Prostration Chanting Merit Paritta Dāna Nekkhamma Śīla Five Precepts Bodhisattva vow Prātimokṣa Threefold Training Śīla Samadhi Prajñā Brahmavihara Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha Pāramitā Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Seven Factors of Enlightenment Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi Vīrya Four Right Exertions Iddhipada Five Strengths Faith Mindfulness Satipatthana Dhyāna Bhavana Satya Sacca Meditation Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā (Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma Nirvana Bodhi Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Bodhisattva Four stages of enlightenment Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat Monasticism Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka The ten principal disciples Shaolin Monastery Major figures Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Texts Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon Branches Theravada Mahayana Chan Buddhism Zen Seon Thiền Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara Navayana Vajrayana Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna Countries Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Myanmar Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia Kalmykia Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East Iran Western countries Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela History Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism in India Decline of Buddhism in India Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism and the Roman world Buddhism in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism Philosophy Abhidharma Logic Buddhology Eschatology Reality Creator Secular Buddhism Humanism Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Socialism Economics Atomism Evolution Ethics The unanswered questions Culture Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Temple of the Tooth Art Greco-Buddhist art Poetry Buddha statue Budai Symbolism Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka Prayer wheel Mala Mudra Mantra Om mani padme hum Funeral Music Holidays Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Rains retreat Kassaya Architecture Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture Pilgrimage Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar Bodhi Tree Mahabodhi Temple Calendar Cuisine Vegetarianism Miscellaneous Lineage Maitreya Avalokiteśvara Guanyin Amitābha Brahmā Māra Dhammapada Vinaya Sutra Koliya Hinayana Sacred languages Pali Sanskrit Dharma talk Kalpa Abhijñā Ṛddhi Siddhi Buddhism and: Science Psychology Hinduism Jainism Judaism East Asian religions Christianity Influences Comparison Theosophy Gnosticism Violence Western philosophy Lists Buddhas Twenty-eight Buddhas Bodhisattvas Buddhists Suttas Books Temples Candi Portal Category v t e Religion Major religious groups and religious denominations Abrahamic Judaism Orthodox Haredi Hasidic Modern Conservative Reform Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic Haymanot Christianity Catholicism Eastern Catholic Churches Eastern Christianity Church of the East Assyrian Church of the East Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Ethiopian Orthodoxy Independent Catholicism Old Catholicism Protestantism Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptists Calvinism Presbyterianism Congregationalism Continental Reformed Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Evangelicalism Nontrinitarianism Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Jesuism Nondenominational Islam Sunni Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i Shia Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam Others Bábism Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism Dharmic Hinduism Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese Buddhism Mahayana Chan Zen Thiền Seon Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai Theravada Vajrayana Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon Navayana Others Jainism Digambara Śvētāmbara Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon Lamaism Kirant Mundhum Iranian Manichaeism Yazdânism Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism Zoroastrianism European Armenian Baltic Dievturība Druwi Romuva Caucasian Celtic Druidry Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic Uralic Finnish Hungarian Uralic Mari Mordvin Udmurt Central and Northern Asian Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism East Asian Confucianism Faism Taoism Luoism Neo-Confucianism Shenism Wuism Shinto Ryukyuan religion Cheondoism Muism Jeungsanism Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Dongbaism Hmongism Meishanism Mileism Shigongism Yiguandao Southeast Asian Burmese Caodaism Satsana Phi Malaysian Marapu (Sumba) Indonesian Kaharingan Hoahaoism Javanism Philippine Vietnamese Đạo Mẫu African Traditional Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu Diasporic Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti Other groups Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Dravidian Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian Recent Discordianism Pastafarianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca Historical religions Prehistoric Paleolithic Near East Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic Indo-European Asia Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism Mithraism Zurvanism Gnosticism Manichaeism Europe Celtic Germanic Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse Greek Gnosticism Neoplatonism Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic Topics Aspects Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism monk nun Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Religious experience Ritual liturgy sacrifice Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship Theism Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism Religious studies Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women Religion and society Agriculture Business Clergy monasticism ordination Conversion evangelism missionary proselytism Education Fanaticism Freedom pluralism syncretism toleration universalism Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence persecution terrorism war Wealth Secularism andirreligion Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated Overviews and lists Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars Category Portal Authority control GND: 4117709-5 NDL: 00574597 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zen&oldid=782185676" Categories: ZenSchools of BuddhismMahayanaNondualismYogacaraBuddha-natureHidden categories: Pages using ISBN magic linksWebarchive template wayback linksArticles containing traditional Chinese-language textArticles containing simplified Chinese-language textArticles containing Vietnamese-language textArticles containing Korean-language textArticles containing Japanese-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2012Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013Articles containing Chinese-language textArticles with unsourced statements from August 2015All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2013Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read Edit View history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages AfrikaansAlemannischالعربيةAragonésAsturianuAzərbaycancaBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegБуряадCatalàČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisFryskGaeilgeGàidhligGalego한국어हिन्दीHrvatskiIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתქართულიҚазақшаKiswahiliລາວLatinaLatviešuLietuviųMagyarМакедонскиമലയാളംमराठीBahasa MelayuМонголမြန်မာဘာသာNederlands日本語Norsk bokmålNorsk nynorskOccitanਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابیភាសាខ្មែរPiemontèisPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаScotsSimple EnglishSlovenčinaSlovenščinaکوردیی ناوەندیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்Татарча/tatarçaతెలుగుไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوTiếng Việt文言Winaray吴语ייִדיש粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 25 May 2017, at 11:53. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view

For more information about zen check the Wikipedia article here

ZME Science posts about zen

6 Habits To Avoiding And Overcoming Procrastination

Tue, Apr 1, 2008


Photo by j.lee43 Try to put me in a room Distraction less (Everything is everything) Spare me from worse In the studio, I would finally burn (All the time is all you got) Tempted to work ~Amy Winehouse~ In short procrastination is a habit if you will, a very bad habit, that consists in putting [...]

Subscribe for FREE!

Drop us a line!

If you're a productivity or motivation enthusiast, and would like to share insights, please contact us. If you'd like to contribute with a guest post, the same.Just want to say "hi"?. Write to our e-mail.

Popular This Week